Benedictine Secular Order of the Missionaries of Charity
Ordem Secular dos Beneditinos Missiónarios da Caridade
The Benedictine Confederation
The Benedictine Secular Order of the Missionaries of Charity is a union of monastic orders which, despite this, maintained their internal autonomy, as established by Pope Leo XIII in "Summum semper" (July 12, 1893), later approved by his successors. Pius XII explicitly ordered that this union be regulated by a "lex propria", which was later revised by the Second Vatican Council.
Thirumala-Thrikkannapuram Rd, Poojapura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
A protest took place in 1653 with the Coonan Cross Oath. Under the leadership of Archdeacon Thomas, the Thomas Christians publicly took an oath that they would not obey the Jesuit bishops.
Rome sent Carmelites in two groups from the Propagation of the Faith to Malabar headed by Fr. Sebastiani and Fr. Hyacinth. Fr. Sebastiani arrived first in 1655. He began to deal directly with the Archdeacon, Mar Thoma I. Fr. Sebastiani gained the support of many, especially with the support of Parambil Mar Chandy, Alexandar Kadavil and the Vicar of Muttam. According to Jesuit reports, these were the three councilors of Mar Thoma I who, before the arrival of Sebastiani, were reconciled with Francisco Garcia Mendes, the Jesuit Archbishop of Cranganore, one of the Latin rite sees in Kerala, .
Between 1661 and 1662, out of the 116 churches, the Carmelites reclaimed 84 churches, leaving Archdeacon Mar Thomas I with 32 churches. The 84 churches and their congregations were the body from which the Syro Malabar Church has descended. The other 32 and their congregations represented the nucleus from which the Syriac Orthodox (Jacobites & Orthodox), Thozhiyur, Mar Thoma Syrians, Syro Malankara Catholics originated.
In 1665 Mar Gregorios, a bishop sent by the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, arrived in India. The dissident group under the leadership of the Archdeacon welcomed him. Though most of the St. Thomas Christians gradually relented in their strong opposition to the Western control, the arrival of the Bishop Mar Gregory of the Syriac Orthodox Church in 1665 marked the beginning of a formal schism among the St. Thomas Christians. Those who accepted the West Syrian theological and liturgical tradition of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch of Mar Gregory became known as the Jacobite, The Syrian Catholics remained in communion with Rome and later came to be known as the Syro Malabar Church.
Baselios Paulose I (1912–1913), the first Catholicos, died after a short period of five months on 13 May 1913; the See remained vacant until 1925. That was a period of litigation in the Malankara Church. The litigation for Vattippanam (a fixed deposit of money in the name of the Church) and its after-effects in the community was at its zenith.
On Geevarghese's return from Calcutta a friend, E. John Vakeel, donated 100 acres (400,000 m2) of land at Mundanmala, Ranni-Perunadu, Kerala at the meeting place of the rivers Pampa and Kakkatt for an ashram. Geevarghese and his followers built a small thatched hut at what became the first Ashram in Malankara on 15 August 1919, named "Bethany". Along with the Ashram Geevarghese started a house for orphans.
On 20 September 1930 Mar Ivanios, Bishop Jacob Mar Theophilos, Fr. John Kuzhinapurath OIC, Dn. Alexander OIC, and Chacko Kilileth embraced and reunited with the Catholic Church. The Reunion Movement under the leadership of Mar Ivanios gave rise to Malankara Catholic Church.
After reunion movement
Pope Pius XI, through the Apostolic Constitution Christo Pastorum Principi of June 11, 1932, established the Syro-Malankara Hierarchy for the reunited community and erected the Archiparchy of Thiruvananthapuram with the Eparchy of Tiruvalla as its suffragan. The Metropolitan Eparchy of Thiruvananthapuram was established in 1933. Mar Ivanios was enthroned as its first Metropolitan Archbishop. The Eparchy of Tiruvalla was established in 1933. Jacob Mor Theophilos was enthroned as its first Bishop.
The Eparchy of Tiruvalla was led by Jacob Mor Theophilos and Joseph Mor Severios. Severios was the Administrator of the Eparchy until 1950 due to the ill health of Theophilos. In 1950 he was appointed as the Bishop of Tiruvalla. He was also invested with the title ‘Archbishop’. He died on 18 January 1955.
Metropolitan Archbishop Benedict Gregorios
Archbishop Benedict Mar Gregorios
In 1955 Metropolitan Archbishop Benedict Gregorios was enthroned as the Metropolitan Archbishop of Thiruvananthapuram and the Head of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church.
In 1958 the territorial boundaries of the Eparchy of Tiruvalla was extended north to include the Malabar region of Kerala, the civil districts of Coimbatore and Nilgiris and Karoor Taluk in Tiruchirappally District of Tamil Nadu and districts of Mysore, Mandya, Coorg, Hasan, Chickamangalore, Shimoga and South Kanara of Karnataka State.
The appointment of Mor Isaac Yoohanon as Bishop of Tiruvalla and erection of the Eparchy of Bathery with the appointment of Cyril Mar Baselios as its first Bishop through the decree of the Holy See took place in 1978. Both prelates were consecrated that year.
The Eparchy of Bathery was officially inaugurated in 1978. In 1979 the Eparchial contemplative monastery, Dhyana Ashram, was founded in the Eparchy of Bathery by Fr. Silvester Kozhimannil.
Lawrence Mor Ephrem was consecrated Bishop in 1980.
Malankara Catholics within India but outside the canonical territorial boundaries of the Church were first organized as Malankara Catholic Associations, and later came to be erected as personal parish communities. A coordinator was appointed to oversee them, by the Council of Hierarchs of the Malankara Catholic Church.
Mor Geevarghese Timotheos succeeded Yoohanon as the Bishop of Tiruvalla. He was consecrated Bishop in 1988.
Metropolitan-Archbishop Benedict Mor Gregorios died in 1994 after serving 41 years.
Cyril Baselios, the Bishop of Bathery having been appointed by Pope John Paul II, was enthroned as Metropolitan Archbishop of Thiruvananthapuram and as the head of the Malankara Church on 14 December 1995. Geevarghese Mar Divannasios was consecrated Bishop of Bathery in the place of Cyril Mar Baselios on 5 February 1996. Achille Silvestrini, Cardinal Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, visited the Malankara Catholic Church on 11, 12, 13 February 1996. On the request of Cyril Baselios, by an Apostolic Bull dated 16 December 1996, Pope John Paul II erected the Eparchy of Marthandom bifurcating the Metropolitan Eparchy of Thiruvananthapuram. Lawrence Mar Ephrem was appointed as its first Bishop. He died after a few months of his enthronement as Bishop of Marthandom, on 8 April 1997.
In the meantime the Eparchy of Tiruvalla was blessed with an Auxiliary Bishop in the person of Thomas Mar Koorilos, who was consecrated Bishop on 17 July 1997. On 29 June 1998 Yoohanon Mar Chrysostom was consecrated as the Bishop of Marthandom and Joshua Mar Ignathios as the Auxiliary Bishop for the Metropolitan Eparchy of Thiruvananthapuram. Paulos Mar Philoxenos died on 3 November 1998.
Christu Jayanthi Maha Jubilee and the Sapthathy of the Re-union Movement of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church were celebrated jointly at Tiruvalla on 26, 27, 28 December 2000.
In this period parishes for the faithful of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church in the United States of America were established. Pope John Paul II nominated the Proto-Syncellus of Bathery Isaac Thottunkal, as Apostolic Visitor and the Auxiliary Bishop of Thiruvananthapuram on 18 June 2001 for the Syro-Malankarites residing in North America and Europe. He was consecrated on 15 August 2001 at Tirumoolapuram, (Tiruvalla), and assumed the name Isaac Mar Cleemis.
Bifurcating the Eparchy of Tiruvalla, the Eparchy of Muvattupuzha was erected on 15 January 2003 and Thomas Mar Koorilos was appointed as its first Bishop.
On 29 March 2003 Bishop Mar Timotheos resigned due to his age, and the Holy See appointed Isaac Cleemis, the Apostolic Visitor to Europe and America, as the Bishop of Tiruvalla. Cleemis took charge of the Diocese on 2 October 2003. On January 5, 2005 Joseph Mar Thomas was appointed as the Auxiliary Bishop of Thiruvananthapuram and Apostolic Visitor to North America and Europe.
The enthronement of the Major Archbishop as the head of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church took place on May 14, 2005. The Malankara Major Archiepiscopal Curia (Catholicate Centre) started functioning at the St. Mary's Campus, Pattom, Thiruvananthapuram. On May 20, 2005, Cyril Baselios blessed the Curia building. Baselios soon constituted the first Synod of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, convened from 16 to 18 August 2005 at the Major Archiepiscopal Curia, Thiruvananthapuram. It constituted the Permanent Synod and the various Synodal Commissions headed by Bishops to take care of various apostolates of the Church. The official bulletin, Malankara is published from the Major Archiepiscopal Curia, to communicate the Synodal acts and voice of the Syro-Malankara Major Archiepiscopal Church.
The Platinum Jubilee of the Reunion Movement and the Year of the Eucharist were celebrated jointly at Mar Ivanios Nagar, Punnamoodu, Mavelikara on September 19, 20, 21, 2005.
By decrees of Baselios, the Metropolitan Province of Tiruvalla with the Eparchies of Bathery and Muvattupuzha as suffragans, was established on May 15, 2006 and Isaac Cleemis was appointed as the Metropolitan Archbishop of Tiruvalla. On June 10, 2006 Isaac Cleemis was enthroned as the first Metropolitan-Archbishop of Tiruvalla.
By the decree of Baselios, on January 1, 2007, the new Eparchy of Mavelikara was erected and Joshua Mar Ignathios, the Auxiliary Bishop and protosyncellus of the Major Archdiocese of Thiruvananthapuram, was appointed as its first Bishop.
The Second Ordinary Holy Episcopal Synod was convoked on December 6–7, 2006 and it was decided to revive monastic consecration according to the tradition of the Antiochene Church, properly termed Rabban per the Syriac, but locally called Ramban; and Corepiscopo, to honour a number of priests for their meritorious service in the Church.
On Thursday, January 18, 2007, Cyril Baselios died, and was entombed by the side of his predecessors at St. Mary's Cathedral, Pattom, Thiruvananthapuram on January 20, 2007.
Isaac Cleemis was elected the Major Archbishop of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church through the first Episcopal Synod of election of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church held on February 7–10, 2007 at the Catholicate Centre, Pattom, Thiruvananthapuram. Pope Benedict XVI confirmed the election on 9 February and it was announced on 10 February at St. Mary's Cathedral, Pattom, Thiruvananthapuram.
The installation of Aboon Mor Joshua Ignathios was held on 16 February 2007 at Mavelikara and Aboon Geevarghese Mar Divannasios, the Administrator of The Malankara Catholic Major Archiepiscopal Church presided over the installation ceremony. The new eparchy has a 30,825 Syro-Malankara Catholic faithful of a total population of 2,998,325 inhabitants. Of this 269,849 are Malankara non-Catholics and 598,824 Christians of other denominations.
On February 7, 2007, Pope Benedict XVI appointed Fr. Chacko Aerath OIC as the Apostolic Visitor with Episcopal status for the Malankara Catholic faithful residing in the Extraterritorial Regions of the Church within India.
Baselios Cleemis was enthroned as the Major Archbishop of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church on March 5, 2007 at St. Mary's Cathedral, Pattom, Thiruvananthapuram.
On March 26, 2007 the Aboon Thomas Mar Koorilos was appointed the Second Metropolitan Archbishop of the Archieparchy of Tiruvalla. His installation Ceremony was held on May 2, 2007 at St.John’s Cathedral, Tiruvalla. Major Arch-bishop Cleemis was the main celebrant.
Baselios Cleemis visited Pope Benedict XVI on May 28, 2007 at Vatican and exchanged ecclesiastical Communion.
On July 14, 2007 Major Archbishop Baselios Cleemis declared Archbishop Mar Ivanios a Servant of God.
In accordance with the provisions of CCEO can. 1063 the Ordinary Tribunal of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church was constituted on November 15, 2007.
Aboon Abraham Mar Julios, Ph.D. was consecrated Bishop of the Eparchy of Moovattupuzha by Baselios Cleemis on February 9, 2008 at Moovattupuzha.
Baselios Cleemis blessed the newly built Tomb Chapel of the Servant of God Mar Ivanios in St. Mary's Cathedral, Pattom, Thiruvananthapuram on July 1, 2008.
Cleemis created two new Eparchies in the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, Pathanamthitta in Kerala and Puthur in the State of Karnataka. He appointed four new bishops, elected by the Holy Episcopal Synod. He announced the transfer of Bishop Yoohanon Mar Chrysostom, later Bishop of Marthandom, to the new See of Pathanamthitta and Bishop Geevarghese Mar Divannasios from the See of Bathery to the new See of Puthur. Joseph Mar Thomas, the Apostolic Visitator to North America and Europe was appointed Bishop of Bathery. To the See of Marthandom, vacant due the transfer of its Bishop, was appointed Vincent Kulapuravilai, Professor and Registrar of St. Mary's Malankara Seminary Thiruvananthapuram. Samuel Kattukallil, Syncellus of the Major Archeparchy of Thiruvananthapuram and Stephen Thottathil, Dean of the Faculty of Theology of St. Mary's Malankara Seminary were appointed Auxiliary Bishops of the Major Archeparchy of Thiruvananthapuram and the Archieparchy of Tiruvalla respectively. Antony Valiyavilayil, the Postulator of the Cause of Canonisation of Servant of God Archbishop Mar Ivanios and the Chancellor of the Major Archiepiscopal Curia, was appointed the Bishop of the Curia.
The Episcopal Ordination of Bishops Vincent Mar Paulos, Samuel Mar Irenios, Philipose Mar Stephanos and Thomas Mar Anthonios took place at Mar Ivanios Vidya Nagar in Thiruvananthapuram on March 13, 2010
The Public Meeting after the Episcopal Ordination on March 13, 2010
Thomas Naickamparampil was appointed as the first Exarch of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Exarchate in the United States by Pope Benedict XVI, with consultation by Cleemis and the Holy Synod of Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, on 14 July 2010. He was ordained bishop and received the name Aboon Thomas Mor Eusebius on 21 September 2010 at St. Mary's Malankara Syrian Catholic Cathedral, Thiruvananthapuram. His installation ceremony was on October 3, 2010 at Kellenberg Memorial High School, Uniondale, New York.
There are 39 Syro-Malankara communities in North India, including churches at Banglore, Chennai, Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, Pune and Hyderabad. On March 26, 2015, Cleemis and the Holy Synod in consultation with the Holy Father Pope Francis erected two Eparchies to cover all of India. Bishop Barnabas Jacob was appointed bishop of the Delhi-based Eparchy of St John Chrysostom of Gurgaon. Bishop Anthonios Thomas heads the Apostolic Exarchate of St Ephrem of Khadki.
In July 2010, Pope Benedict XVI erected an apostolic exarchate for Syro-Malankara Catholics in the United States, and appointed Father Thomas Naickamparampil, then head secretary general of the major archiepiscopate of the Syro-Malankara Church, as first apostolic exarch of the new exarchate. The bishop-elect was ordained to the episcopacy on 21 September 2010 at St. Mary's Malankara Syrian Catholic Cathedral, Pattom receiving the name "Aboon Thomas Mor Eusebius" and the Enthronement Ceremony in the United States was held on October 3, 2010 at Kellenberg High School, Uniondale, New York.
Canada and Europe
In July 2010 Pope Benedict XVI also appointed Thomas Eusebius as Apostolic Visitor for Syro-Malankara Catholics in Canada and Europe, alongside his primary work as Apostolic Exarch of the above-mentioned newly created Syro-Malankara exarchate in the U.S. There are Syro-Malankara parishes and communities in Canada, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.
Thirteen Syro-Malankara communities are present in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. Because parishes (Qatar has parish) have not yet been organized, as the Syro-Malankara does not have ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the Middle East, the people are under the direct supervision of the Roman Catholic Apostolic Vicariates of Northern Arabia and Southern Arabia. Malankara Catholics of Abu Dhabi launched one of the early websites for the Syro Malankara Catholic Church beofore any official sites were existing and the first in the middle east. Now almost all communities in the Gulf have their own websites.
Recently Rev. Dr. John Padipurackal, a Syro Malankara priest serving in Kuwait, in the Apostolic Vicariate of Northern Arabia, is appointed the Coordinator of the Malankara Catholic Faithful in the Middle East. "In consultation with the Holy Episcopal Synod of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church convoked from 5–8 March 2012 His Cleemis appointed Rev. Dr. John Padipurackal the Ecclesiastical Coordinator of the Extraterritorial Region in Middle East. He has to oversee the pastoral engagement of the Syro-Malankara Priests and coordinate the pastoral activities of common interest in the Gulf Region" relates Malankara, the official Communiqué of the Syro Malankara Catholic Church regarding this new appointment.
The Malankara Catholic Educational Society manages various ecclesiastical, charitable, and educational institutions. Baselios Cleemis is the President and Samuel Mar Irenios the Vice Chairman of Malankara Catholic Educational Society.
Malankara Catholic Youth Movement (MCYM) is the official organization for the youth in Syro-Malankara Catholic Church. The Catholic Youth Movement of Kerala dates back to the second half of the 1960s. Although there were some youth organisations in the parish level at different parts of Kerala, the spread of the organization of the youth movements in the diocese took place rather late. Two reasons seems to be of prime importance for the foundation of the youth organizations in the late 1960s.
1) Major Archieparchy of Thiruvananthapuram
2) Archieparchy of Thiruvilla
3) Eparchy of Bathery
4) Eparchy of Marthandom
5) Eparchy of Muvattupuzha
6) Eparchy of Mavelikkara
7) Eparchy of Pathanamthitta
MCYM Tamil Nadu
1.) Eparchy of Marthanadom
1.) Eparchy of Puttur
MCYM ETR in India
1) Apostolic Visitation of North India Malankara Syrian Catholic Churches (MCCETR – New Delhi)
1) Exarchate of United States Malankara Syrian Catholic Churches (Elmont, New York)
MCYM of the Exarchate and Apostolic Visitation of Canada and Europe
Malankara Catholic Association
Founded in 1989, the Malankara Catholic Association is the association of lay faithful of the Church. Baselios Cleemis is the patron; there are now diocesan sections in the Thiruvananthapuram, Thiruvalla, Bathery, Moovattupuzha and Marthandom Dioceses and in North America.
The official name of the church is Syro-Malankara Catholic Church which is mainly used in catholic world. The name of the church as translated from Malayalam/Syriac is Malankara Syrian Catholic Church.